Did Prophet Muhammad order Killing Surrendered Jews of Banu Quraiza and Khaybar? A historical Analysis!
What really happened to Banu Qurayza Jews?
According to “Sirat-a-Rasul” (page 464) by Ibn Ishaq the story goes as follows:
Gist: After the Battle of the Ditch, when the coalition force of Quraish left the battle field, Prophet Muhammad attacked the last of the large Jewish tribes of Medina, the Banu Qurayza. After a 25 days siege, they (Jews) surrender unconditionally. In the end, all 600-700 males of the tribe were killed and the women and children sold into slavery.
Story in details:
The Banu Quraiza Jewish tribe was attacked for not supporting Prophet Muhammad when the Quraish’s coalition force from Mecca attacked Medina (The battle of trench). After the withdrawal of the coalition force the Jews were isolated. Hazrat Ali (ra) sworn that he would never stop until he either storms their garrisons or be killed.
Muslim: Volume 5, Book 59, Number 444: Narrated by Anas:
“As if I am just now looking at the dust rising in the street of Banu Ghanm (in Medina) because of the marching of Gabriel's regiment when Allah's Apostle set out to Banu Quraiza (to attack them).”
After a continuous siege of 25 days, the Banu Qurayza Jews surrendered to Prophet Muhammad unconditionally. Muhammad ordered that the men be handcuffed, while the women and children were isolated in confinement. Thereupon Al-Aws tribe interceded begging the Prophet to be lenient towards them. Muhammad suggested that Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh, a former ally, be deputed to give verdict about them, and they agreed.
Sa’d bin Mu’adh was the leader of a large Medinan tribe, the Aws (or Aus), some of whom favored old alliances with the Jews. The leader was an elderly man who was seriously wounded in the battle of trench (Source: Ibn Ishaq, p. 462; Watt, Muhammad at Medina, pp. 188-89; 214-17). Sa’d gave the verdict that, "that all the able-bodied (adult) male persons belonging to the tribe should be killed, women and children taken prisoners and their wealth divided among the Muslim fighters." Compassionate Prophet Muhammad answers in endorsement of this: “You have given the judgement of Allah above the seven heavens...”, (Source: Ibn Ishaq, pp. 463-64; Tabari vol. 8, p. 34).
To separate adult men from the pre-pubescent boys, the youngsters were examined and if they had grown any pubic hair, it was enough to behead them (Abu Dawud; see Ibn Ishaq, p. 466)..
Sunan Abu-Dawud-Book 38, No. 4390 Narrated Atiyyah al-Qurazi:
“I was among the captives of Banu Qurayzah. They (the Companions) examined us, and those who had begun to grow hair (pubes) were killed, and those who had not were not killed. I was among those who had not grown hair.”
Then the apostle went out to the market of Medina (which is still the market today) and dug trenches in it. Then he sent for them and struck off their heads in those trenches as they were brought out to him in batches. This went on until the apostle made an end of them. Among them was the enemy of Allah Huyayy b. Akhtab and Ka`b b. Asad their chief, and they were brought with their hands bound to their neck by a rope. There were 600 or 700 in all, though some put the figure as high as 800 or 900. Apparently Muhammad himself worked on the digging of the trench into which the massacred Jews were to be thrown. But he did not only take part in those preparations, the formulation of the text states that HE sent for them and STRUCK OFF their heads. Prophet Muhammad also had had huge spoils (Maal-E-Ganimat) from this "final solution" of this richest Jewish tribe of Banu Quraiza.
This next hadith indicates that a woman was delirious. She was killed.
Book 14, Number 2665: Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:“ No woman of Banu [tribe] Qurayzah was killed except one. She was with me, talking and laughing on her back and belly (extremely), while the Apostle of Allah . . . was killing her people with the swords. Suddenly a man called her name: Where is so-and-so? . . . I asked: What is the matter with you? She said: I did a new act. [Aisha] said: The man took her and beheaded her. [Aisha] said: I will not forget that she was laughing extremely although she knew that she would be killed.” (Abu Dawud)
The apostle had chosen one of their women for himself, Rayhana bint Amr . . . one of the women of . . . Qurayza, and she remained with him until she died, in his power. The apostle had proposed to marry and put a veil on her, but she said: "Nay, leave me in your power, for that will be easier for me and for you." So he left her. She had shown repugnance towards Islam when she was captured and clung to Judaism. (Ibn Ishaq, p. 466)
Evidences from Quranic verses are very clear and surprisingly emphatic. Allah actually celebrated this slaughter and enslavement of Banu Qurayza Jews. That these verses were received during/after the Banu Qurayza incident were supported by most Quranic translators like Maoulana A. Yousuf Ali, Hazrat Maulana mufti Muhammad Shafi, Maulana Muhiuddin Khan etc, and of course, by the most famous Islamic scholar Ibn Ishaq. Merciful Allah promptly sent Qur’anic verses during that period of Banu Qurayza war to justify the cruelty of Prophet Muhammad. Here are some Quranic gems which speak the entire truth about Banu Qurayza massacre:
Quran-33:25- “Allah turned back the unbelievers [Meccans and their allies] in a state of rage, having not won any good, and Allah spared the believers battle. Allah is, indeed, Strong and Mighty.”
Quran-33:26- “And He brought those of the People of the Book [Jewish people of Banu Qurayza] who supported them from their fortresses and cast terror into their hearts, some of them you slew (beheaded) and some you took prisoners (captive)”
Quran-33:27- “And He made you heirs of their lands, their houses, and their goods, and of a land which ye had not frequented (before). And Allah has power over all things.” [Merciful Allah asked Prophet Muhammad to confiscate entire properties of surrendered Jews]
Quran-8:67—“It is not fitting for an Apostle that he should have prisoners of war until He thoroughly subdued the land….” (Allah insisting Prophet to kill all the prisoners, and should not keep any surrendered prisoners alive until He (Prophet) occupied entire Arabia.”
Quran-8:17—It is not ye who Slew them; it is God; when thou threwest a handful of dust, it was not Thy act, but God’s…..” (Allah said, the killing of surrendered soldiers were done by the wish of Allah)
The verse 33:25 told about the retreat of the great force of unbelievers without any success; verse-26 told about how later the traitor Jewish tribe banu Quraiza was raided and seized and Jewish people were terrorized by Muhammad’s army; and verse-33: 27 told—how by the judgement of Sa’d ibn Muaz all the men were slaughtered and women and children were captivated. And Jewish land and property were taken as Booty….Sa’d delivered his justice according to Bible; hence Muhammad said—“your judgenet was like God.”
Allah permited the enslavement and beheading of Jews, so any Muslim familiar with the background of this verse knows that beheading as such has been assimilated into the Quran.
The Prophet Muhammad had expelled two other Jewish tribes (Qaynuqa and Nadir) from Medina, so he could have done the same with the Qurayza—as indeed Banu Quryza Jews begged for mercy and requested to let them leave Medina. But the prophet for humanity (?) declined this merciful and humane option.
Quranic Tafsir supported Banu Qurayza massacre:
Maulana A. Yousuf Ali stated:
“The men of the Quraiza were slain; the women were sold as captives of war (booty); and their lands and properties were distributed or divided among the Muhajirs (Yousuf Ali’s tafsir for Sura Ahzab)”.
Also please read Koranic Tafsir of Sura Ahzab by Maulana Muhiuddin Khan (Saudi aided Bengali translation of Koran)
What Hadiths says about Banu Qurayza massacre?
That Prophet Muhammad systematically eradicated Jews (who actually welcomed him when he fled to Medina from Mecca) from Medina. He beheaded the men and the pubescent boys and enslaved the women and children. In doing this, he wiped out several Jewish tribes "off the map" just the way Iranian Islamic president Ahmdijannbad desires to do same with present day Jews in Israel. These Islamic cruelties were recorded by various sahi hadiths as follows:
Sahi Bukhari :Volume 5, Book 59, Number 443:
When the Prophet returned from the battle of Al-Khandaq (i.e. Trench) and laid down his arms and took a bath, Gabriel came and said (to the Prophet), “you have laid down your arms? By Allah, we angels have not laid them down yet. So set out for them." The Prophet said, "Where to go?" Gabriel said, "Towards this side," pointing towards Banu Quraiza. So the Prophet went out towards them.
Book 019, Number 4368:
It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Sa'id al-Khudri who said: The people of Banu Quraiza surrendered accepting the decision of Sa'd b. Mu'adh about them. Accordingly, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent for Sa'd who came to him riding a donkey. When he approached the mosque, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said to the Ansar: Stand up to receive your chieftain. Then he said (to Sa'd): These people have surrendered accepting your decision. He (Sa'd) said: “You will kill their fighters and capture their women and children.” (Hearing this), the Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: “You have adjudged by the command of God.”
Sahi Bukhari: Book 019, Number 4370:
It has been narrated on the authority of A'isha who said: Sa'd was wounded on the day of the Battle of the Ditch. A man from the Quraish called Ibn al-Ariqah shot at him an arrow which pierced the artery in the middle of his forearm. The Messenger of Allah (may peacce be upon him) pitched a tent for him in the mosque and would inquire after him being in close proximity. When he returned from the Ditch and laid down his arms and took a bath, the angel Gabriel appeared to him and he was removing dust from his hair (as if he had just returned from the battle). The latter said: You have laid down arms. By God, we haven't (yet) laid them down. So march against them. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) asked: Where? He pointed to Banu Quraiza. So the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him) fought against them. They surrendered at the command of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), but he referred the decision about them to Sa'd who said: “I decide about them that those of them who can fight be killed, their women and children taken prisoners and their properties distributed (among the Muslims).”
Angel Gabriel, Muhammad and Ali holding with double bladed sword
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 280:
Narrated Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri:
When the tribe of Bani Quraiza was ready to accept Sad's judgment, Allah's Apostle sent for Sad who was near to him. Sad came, riding a donkey and when he came near, Allah's Apostle said (to the Ansar), "Stand up for your leader." Then Sad came and sat beside Allah's Apostle who said to him. "These people are ready to accept your judgment." Sad said, "I give the judgment that their warriors should be killed and their children and women should be taken as prisoners." The Prophet then remarked, "O Sad! You have judged amongst them with (or similar to) the judgment of the King Allah."
Merciful Allah’s reward (Booty) for Jihadis:
Allah repeatedly promised bountiful rewards for the believers both in this life and afterlife. But Allah never told believers to work hard to get it or to establish industries or business; neither anything which could make economy better, nor any lucrative rewards dropped from the sky! But then, what was the ultimate source of promised bounty for the believers during 7th century period? Answer is, it was BOOTY (spoils) sanctioned by Allah in the holy Quran. Booty was the most cruel and immoral provision practiced by Islamic jihadis, which not even any known ancient invaders (Alexander the Great, Romans, Persians or Assyrians etc.) did practice. Allah’s techniques of making Muslims (believers) richer were simple burglary, plundering and highway robbery (after sudden attack/invading) of Arab’s business caravans, neighboring tribes or sovereign nations. Allah of Islam emphatically encouraged and gave Muslims license to invade, subdue or kill all non-Muslim men and to take their women, children and all properties of the prisoners as booty (Ganimatter Maal). He (Allah) made booty (Ganimater Maal) Halal (lawful) for Muslim warriors. One can find all those tempting verses of Sura Anf’al from Allah inviting Muslims to enjoy booty sanctioned for them. Below are some examples how Quran openly supported Islamic jihadi’s immoral acts:
Quran-8:69—“But (now) enjoy what ye took in war (booty), lawful and good; but fear God…” (Allah encouraging Muslims to accept booty spoils of war “Maal-E-Ganimat”)
Quran-8:1— “They ask thee concerning (things taken as) spoils of war (booty). Say: "(such) spoils are at the disposal of Allah and the Messenger: So fear Allah, and keep straight the relations between yourselves: Obey Allah and His Messenger, if ye do believe."
Quran-8:41— “And know that out of all the booty that ye may acquire (in war), a fifth share is assigned to Allah,- and to the Messenger, and to near relatives, orphans, the needy, and the wayfarer,- if ye do believe in Allah and in the revelation We sent down to Our servant on the Day of Testing,- the Day of the meeting of the two forces. For Allah hath power over all things.”
One may think that Islamic Allah was (actually) enslaved by Prophet Muhammad. Otherwise how in the world any divine God could allow such cruelest and highly immoral things to happen! Allah readily permitted Prophet Muhammad to take the Jewish clan’s property on the basis of conquest and his possession of all things (Quran-33:27). This is a dubious revelation and reasoning Allah speaks, and this benefits Muhammad materially and politically. This happened too often in Prophet Muhammad’s life. In fact, this “Booty” provision was the most dynamic and lucrative lure or attraction for amassing Arab have-nots (slaves, poor, vagabonds, unemployed destitute) in the Prophet Muhammad’s jihadi cult—in order to become rich by quick method in this life and also enjoy unlimited heavenly pleasures in afterlife!
What really happened to Jews in Khaybar?
Merciful prophet of Islam in his campaign of eradicating all the Jewish tribes (who were most prosperous and rich) from around Medina, he conquered Jewish tribe of Khaybar in May, 628CE. This was a preemptive surprise attack (Gazzowa) or a sudden and unprovoked assault on the Jews of Khaybar. This was a decisive victory for Muslims. The Jews lost ninety-three (93) men while the loss on the Muslim side was only nineteen (19) men. Muhammad took some Khaybar Jews as captives, including Safiyyah bt. Huyayy b. Akhtab, an exquisitely pretty young newly married bride of Kinanah b. al-Rabi b. al-Huqayq. She was the daughter of B. Nadir chief, Huayy b. Akhtab who was beheaded by Muhammad during the slaughtering of B. Qurayzah. Kinanah had recently married Safiyyah, the young, vivacious and pouted daughter of Huyayy and had received a good treasure trove as gift. Muhammad also took two daughters of Safiyaah's paternal uncle.
What sahi Bukhari says about Khaybar episode?
Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, Number 512:
Narrated by Anas:
The Prophet offered the Fajr Prayer near Khaybar when it was still dark and then said, "Allahu-Akbar! Khaybar is destroyed, for whenever we approach a (hostile) nation (to fight), then evil will be the morning for those who have been warned." Then the inhabitants of Khaybar came out running on the roads. The Prophet had their warriors killed, their offspring and woman taken as captives. Safiya was amongst the captives, She first came in the share of Dahya Alkali but later on she belonged to the Prophet . The Prophet made her manumission as her 'Mahr'. Muhammad was sixty (60) when he married Safiyyahh, a young girl of seventeen. She became his eighth wife.
Distribution of war booty in Khaybar:
Sahi Buchari Hadiths #143, page-700: Sulaiman Ibne Harb…Aannas Ibne Malek (ra) narrated, “in the war of Khayber after the inhabitants of Banu Nadir were surrendered, Allah’s apostle killed all the able/adult men, and he (prophet) took all women and children as captives (Ghani mateer maal).. Among the captives Safiyya Bint Huyy Akhtab was taken by Allah’s Apostle as booty whom He married after freeing her and her freedom was her Mahr.”
At first Dihyah al-Kalbi, a Muslim Jihadist asked for Safiyyah. But when Muhammad saw the unparallel beauty of her, he chosen her for himself and gave her two cousin sisters to Dihyah.
Lascivious story supported by sahi hadiths:
(a) Sahi Buchari Hadiths
(#149, page-704): Ahmed Ibne Saleh…Annas Ibne Malek narrated, “….when we told Apostle of Allah about the paragon beauty of Safiya Bint Huyay (who was newly wed and the husband was killed in the battle), then Allah’s Apostle sanctioned her for himself…”
(b) Sunan Abu Dawud: Kitab al-Kharaj
Book 19; number 2992
Anas said: Captives were gathered at Khaybar. Dihyah (a jihadi fighter) came and said: “Apostle of Allah, give me a slave-girl from the captives.” He said : Go and take a slave-girl. He took Safiyaah daughter of Huyayy. A man then came to the Prophet (may peace be upon him) and said: “You gave Safiyaah daughter of Huyayy, chief lady of Quraizah and al-Nadir to Dihyah?” This is according to the version of Ya'qub. Then the version goes: “She is worthy of you.” He said: “Call him along with her.” When the Prophet (may peace be upon him) looked at her, he said to him: “Take another slave-girl from the captives. The Prophet (May peace be upon him) then set her free and married her.
(c) Tabari writes:
"After the Messenger of God conquered al-Qamus, the fortress of Ibn Abi al-Huqyaq, Safiyyah bt. Huyayy b. Akhtab was brought to him, and another woman with her. Bilal, who was the one who brought them, led them pat some of the slain Jews. When the woman who was with Safiyyah saw them, she cried out, struck her face, and poured dust on her head. When the Messenger of God saw her, he said, "Take this she-devil away from me!" she commanded that Safiyyah should be kept behind him and that the Messenger of God had chosen her for himself."
Recovering (booty) hidden gold treasures:
Prophet Muhammad accused Safiyyah's husband, Kinanah and his cousin of hiding some of their properties in contravention of the terms of surrender. He was especially angered that Kinanah had hidden the wealth (worth about ten thousad Dinars; i.e, US$ 500,000, approximately) that he received from his marriage to a B. Nadir girl (i.e. Safiyyah). A renegade Jew divulged the secret of Kinanah's hidden gold treasures. That Jew went and fetched the hidden treasures. Kinanah and his cousin were promptly arrested by the Muslims. Then Kinanah b. al-Rabi, Safiyyah's husband was brought to Muhammad. Muhammad charged him of hiding his wealth in some underground storage. When Kinanah denied this allegation, Muhammad ordered to inflict torture on him. He was tormented by branding his chest with a heated stake and then he was beheaded in Islamic style.
Sourcing Ibn Ishak, Tabari writes:
'Kinanah b. al-Rabi b. al-Huqyaq who had the treasure of B. Nadir was brought to the Messenger of God, who questioned him; but he denied knowing where it was. Then the messenger of God was brought a Jew who said to him, "I have seen Kinanah walk around this ruin every morning." The Messenger of God said to Kinanah: "What do you say? If we find it in your possession, I will kill you." "All right," he answered. The Messenger of God commanded that the ruin should be dug up, and some of the treasure was extracted from it. Then he asked him for the rest of it. Kinanah refused to surrender it; so the Messenger of God gave orders concerning him to al-Zubayr b. al-'Awwam, saying, "torture him until you root out what he has." Al-Zubayr kept twirling his firestick in his breast until Kinanah almost expired; then the Messenger of God gave him to Muhammad b. Maslamah, who beheaded him to avenge his brother Mahmud b. Maslamah."'
Allah’s Messenger occupied Jewish land:
Sahih Muslim writes:Book 010, Number 3759:
Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with them) reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) handed over the land of Khaibar (on the condition) of the share of produce of fruits and harvest, and he also gave to his wives every year one hundred wasqs: eighty wasqs of dates and twenty wasqs of barley. When 'Umar became the caliph he distributed the (lands and trees) of Khaibar, and gave option to the wives of Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) to earmark for themselves the land and water or stick to the wasqs (that they got) every year. They differed in this matter. Some of them opted for land and water, and some of them opted for wasqs every year. 'A'isha and Hafsa were among those who opted for land and water.
Enjoying special Booty (Gani-maater-maal):
After securing paragon beautiful Safiyaah daughter of Huyayy Prophet Muhammad has had sex with this young Safiyya in the tent, on their way back to Medina on the same night. Here is the precarious story: Merciful Prophet asked Bilal, the Negro crier of prayer to fetch Safiyyah to his (Muhammad's) camp. Bilal brought Safiyyah and her cousin straight across the battlefield strewn with dead and close by the corpses of Kinana and his cousin. The two cousin sisters of Safiyyah shrieked in terror when they witnessed the grotesque scene of the slain dead bodies of their dearest relatives that they had to cross over. They tremulously begged a stone-hearted Bilal for mercy but to no avail. When they were brought to Muhammad, he cursed the panic-stricken cousins as devilish and cast his mantle around Safiyyah indicating that she was to be his own. Muhammad consoled a frustrated Dhiya by giving him Safiyyah's cousin sisters. According to Ibn Sa'd Prophet Muhammad purchased Safiyyah from Dhiyah for seven camels (around US$ 2,450). On the same night (during the day her husband and all relatives were slaughtered) that Muhammad took possession of Safiyyah, he hastened to his tent to sleep with her. This was of course a holy character of Prophet of Islam!
Here is what Ibn Sa'd writes:
"-.when it was night, he entered a tent and she entered with him. Abu Ayyub came there and passed the night by the tent with a sword keeping his head at the tent. When it was morning and the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him.”
Above stories out of Sahi Hadiths clearly and undoubtedly have confirmed at least two things: (1) Prophet killed all those surrendered unarmed Jews in cold blood, (2) Prophet was attracted by Safiyya’s alluring beauty and he had sex with her (I really don’t care after marriage or before marriage) in a period when that poor Safiyya was in terrible grief by loosing her father, brother, husband and relatives and before the bloods of her relatives was even dry. By what yardstick can we measure the mercifulness and compassionateness of our Prophet? Could any Islamist tell me why Prophet of Islam had to set this terrible example?
According to official Arab statistics, 856,000 Jews were forced out of their homes in Arab countries from 1948 until the early 1970s. About 600,000 resettled in Israel, leaving behind property valued today at more than $300 billion (no compensation).
Book 019, Number 4366:
It has been narrated by 'Umar b. al-Khattib that he heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: “I will expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and will not leave any but Muslim.” [This single sahi hadiths tells everything about Islamic intolerance]
Bukhari Volume 4, Book 52, Number 288
The Prophet on his death-bed, gave three orders one of them was to Expel the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula.
Bukhari Volume 4, Book 52, Number 176 Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar:
Allah's Apostle said, "You (i.e. Muslims) will fight with the Jews till some of them will hide behind stones. The stones will (betray them) saying, 'O 'Abdullah (i.e. slave of Allah)! There is a Jew hiding behind me; so kill him.' "
This article has delved with the most sensitive historical incidents happened more than 1400 years ago. Naturally, for correct history, we must depend upon the related sources: Quran, Hadisths and Islamic history recorded by famous biographers. In this article I have used authentic information from the above sources most scrupulously. I have used verses from holy Quran, number of related hadiths as found in Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim; and from the life of Prophet Muhammad recorded by Ibn Ishaq in his word Sirat Rasul Allah available in the abridged edition of Ibn Hisham, and translated by A. Guillaume under the title The Life of Muhammad. This is by far the oldest (written) account of Prophet Muhammad's life in regard to the date of its first composition.
I could not find any alternate or different/contradictory information about this extermination of Jews from Arabia. Scores of sahi hadiths continuously bragged (shamelessly) without any shred of remorse about how heroically (?) the most compassionate Prophet of Islam eliminated all scoundrel Jews from the Medina.
For 1400 years all the above Quranic verses and sahi hadiths that I have used were respected and believed by every Muslim faithful believer without any question. No pious Muslims, respected Mullahs, Maoulanas and most famous Islamic scholars had ever questioned their authenticity or validity; nor did they have any doubt or disbelief on the authenticity of Islamic historical record produced by most famous and revered Islamic scholars like: Ibn Ishaq, Tabari, Buchari or Sunan Abu-Dawud in Islam; rather they readily believed them. In fact, these above Islamic scholars had been the oldest/original source of Islamic history on the basis of which tens of thousands of Islamic books have been compiled by various modern Islamic scholars around the world.
Now that some Islamic critics like me started to point out these utterly immoral and heinous acts of Prophet Muhammad, some western educated hypocritical Islamists started to disown or distort these sahi hadiths and shamelessly questioning the authenticity of well-accepted Islamic histories—only to do damage-control by their futile efforts. They forget that the very ridiculous techniques that they use to distort or to find fault with these sahi hadiths can also be used (by same formulas) to find fault with all the available thousands of hadiths—because, all hadiths were recorded about 200 years after Prophet’s demise. I wonder what they can do to those Quranic verses that I have used in this article. Surprisingly, they remain silent about Quranic verses. This is of course, a pure intellectual bankruptcy on their part.
If anyone is looking for a down-to-earth reason for Prophet Muhammad’s attack on all the affluent Jewish tribes such as Qurayza and Khaybar (instead of "Gabriel’s leadership"), then he does not need to look any further than verse:
33:27. After all, the Meccans and their allies withdrew (from seize of Medina at the battle of trench) without allowing Muslims to take their wealth. So how was Muhammad going to reward his 3,000 jihadists? He needed booty (wealth) to reward his jihadis. The prophet confiscated wealth of Jews to satisfy his greedy jihadis. He was following a bad custom of winner-take-all in seventh-century Arabia. It is a pity and shame that he could not rise above this, as the prophet for all of the world, the last and the best of all the prophets!
1. The Holy Qur’an, Translated by A. Yousuf Ali, Published by Amana Corporation, Brentwood, Maryland, 1983
2. Buchari Sharif, Bengali Translation by Maulana Muhammad Mustafizur Rahman, Sulemani Printers and Publishers, Dhaka, Second edition-1999
3. W. M. Watt, Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman, Oxford UP, 1961, pp. 130-31; 148-51; 166-67.
4. Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah (Life of Muhammad), trans. A. Guillaume, Oxford UP, 1955, pp. 363-64; 437-45.
5. Muhammad at Medina, Oxfored UP, 1956; Sayyid Abul A’La Maududi, The Meaning of the Qur’an, vol. 3.
6. Tabari, The Foundation of the Community, trans. M.V. McDonald and annotated by W. M. Watt (SUNYP, 1987), pp. 85-87; 156-61.
7. Ibn Ishaq; Tabari, The Victory of Islam, trans. M. Fishbein, vol. 8, (1997), pp. 6-7.
8. The Root of Terrorism a la Islamic style; Chapter 13: Terror Fifty-two; by Abul Kasem